California: FTB’s Alternate Apportionment Formula Approved Against General Mills

The California Court of Appeal has ruled that the Franchise Tax Board could impose an alternative apportionment method against General Mills because the apportionment method used by the taxpayer did not fairly represent its business activity in California.

The Court of Appeal had previously ruled that General Mills properly included hedging receipts in the denominator of its sales factor for California apportionment purposes. General Mills v. Franchise Tax Board, 172 Cal.App.4th 1535 (2009). The effect of that determination substantially reduced General Mills’ corporate income tax liability in California.

However, the case was remanded to the trial court to determine whether inclusion of the hedging receipts in the apportionment formula calculation resulted in a fair representation of General Mills’ business activity in California under California Revenue & Taxation Code § 25137. The trial court determined that it did not. The trial court then adopted the FTB’s alternative apportionment formula which included only the taxpayer’s net gains from its hedging strategy in the sales factor. In this ruling, the Court of Appeal affirmed the lower court’s determination and the imposition of the alternative apportionment formula.

Read the opinion here:
General Mills v. FTB, No. A131477 (Cal. App. Aug. 29, 2012)

California Court of Appeal Decision on MTC Election Vacated for Rehearing

On August 9, 2012, the California Court of Appeal (1st Appellate District) “on its own motion and for good cause” vacated its decision and opinion issued on July 24, 2012 in Gillette v. Franchise Tax Board, and ordered a rehearing.

The vacated opinion held that, absent a complete or specific repeal, the Multistate Tax Compact (“MTC”) was binding on member states and a member state could not prevent taxpayers from electing into the MTC’s three-factor apportionment method. The appellants and other practitioners welcomed the decision but, alas, it is no more. Taxpayers and advisors anxious to take action based on the decision will have to wait.

Though the Court of Appeal’s order indicates that the decision to rehear the case was on its own motion, the Franchise Tax Board had filed a Motion for Rehearing the day before which was met by a request to modify the opinion by one of the appellants’ counsel (the case had been consolidated on appeal). It seems that the court did not recognize either motion in its order, but it did make it clear that “additional briefing from any party or any amicus curiae is not requested.”

A date for rehearing has not yet been scheduled.

Massachussetts Appeals Court Affirms Operational Approach to Cost of Performance without a Published Opinion

The appeal of AT&T Corporation v. Commissioner from the Massachusetts Appellate Tax Board (“ATB”) was among the 10 most requested dockets on the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts website. It’s unlikely that observers got exactly what they expected because the decision came with a considerable caveat.

On July 13, 2012, the Massachusetts Appeals Court affirmed the decision of the ATB under Rule 1:28. A decision under Massachusetts Appeals Court Rule 1:28 exists somewhere between an unpublished decision and a per curium opinion. The rule is reserved for the summary disposition of cases where the panel of judges “determine that no substantial question of law is presented by the appeal.” It normally is not accompanied by an opinion (as was the case here) and is regarded as an unpublished decision by the Appeals Court. However, it is not regarded in exactly the same fashion as an unpublished decision in the federal context. Prior to 2008, and the Massachusetts Appellate Court’s decision in Chace v. Curran, 71 Mass. App. Ct. 258, appeal denied, 451 Mass. 1103 (2008), unpublished decisions were not to be relied upon or cited as authority. The Chace opinion, which was accompanied by an official amendment to the court rules, changed the status of Rule 1:28 decisions by holding that unpublished decisions “may be cited for persuasive value but…not as binding precedent.”

The affirmation of the ATB’s decision certainly was a good thing for AT&T even if the application of those facts to others might be approached with some caution. AT&T was subject to the Massachusetts public service corporation franchise tax. They sought a refund of taxes when they changed their approach to apportioning service income earned in Massachusetts. The Department of Revenue rejected the refund claim and they ended up in front of the ATB.

The central issue is what receipts should be included in the sales factor of Massachusetts apportionment purposes. Service income earned in Massachusetts is sourced to the commonwealth using a two-part analysis, often referred to as “cost of performance.” The first step is to determine the income producing activity. The second step is to then to determine if the greater portion of the cost of performing that activity occurs in Massachusetts or elsewhere.

The nature of the income producing activity was crucial to the ATB’s analysis of AT&T’s refund position. The Commissioner of the Department of Revenue argued that AT&T’s income should be measured based on each individual call or data transmission – the transactional approach. Under that analysis, the costs of performing each transaction was greater in Massachusetts than anywhere else, do the income from all the calls would be sourced to Massachusetts and subject to tax by Massachusetts.

AT&T countered that its income producing activity was “providing a national, integrated telecommunications network” – the operational approach. Of course, under AT&T’s method most of the costs related to performing the income producing activity happened at their corporate headquarters in New Jersey, outside of Massachusetts, thus depriving Massachusetts of the privilege of taxing the income.

AT&T had lost this argument in the Oregon Tax Court, but prevailed in the ATB. The ATB found that AT&T’s system of re-routing calls, sometimes across the nation, to make a connection in response to heavy network demands, and the unpredictability of that routing, illustrated that the income producing activity was part of an entire integrated network. It was this decision that the Appeals Court affirmed with its ruling.

The Appeals Court did not issue an opinion with its ruling, but you can read the ATB’s decision here.
AT&T Corp. v. Massachusetts, ATB 2011-524 (June 8, 2011)

Oregon: Tax Court rejects Operational Approach to Cost of Performance

The Oregon Tax Court rejected the taxpayer’s operational approach to cost of performance in determining sales factor receipts for apportionment purposes. The taxpayer, AT&T Corp., filed a claim for refund after recalculating its Oregon sales factor based on the theory that a greater portion of its income producing activities were performed (cost of performance) outside of Oregon than within the state. AT&T used the operational approach (viewing the enterprise as whole) to calculate the costs of performance. The other widely accepted approach to calculating costs of performance is the transactional approach (considering each income producing transaction). The Oregon Tax Court rejected the AT&T’s arguments and the application of the operational approach.  The refund claim was denied.

Read the opinion here:
AT&T Corp. v. Department of Revenue, TC 4814 (June 28, 2011)